Potato quality control app with AI potato quality control:

Potato quality control  app enforces easy QC with AI potato quality control, manages your potato processing, storage, packing & value adding. Complete potato quality & business management solution.

AI powered Potato Quality control app for reduced waste, rapid quality controls saves time and increases quality control consistency.

Potato quality control app enforces easy QC with AI potato quality control, manages your potato processing, storage, packing & value adding. Complete potato quality & business management solution.  Features below require Farmsoft Fresh Produce, Food Service, Meat Packing

AI powered Potato quality control

Optionally use FarmsoftQC AI powered quality control:  take a photo of the fruit and let FarmsoftQC fill out the control for you.  Fast, consistent, accurate AI powered Quality Control.

Potato Stock-take quality control

Perform quality control stock-takes any time by category or storage location.  Know how much  inventory and its quality in real time.  


Quality control for farm tasks, farm equipment (tractors, spray rig etc), in field fresh produce QC tests. (Requires Farmsoft Farm Management app)

Potato Quality control during shipping

Perform optional quality control tests on fresh produce prior to shipping, or during the container loading phase.  

Potato Traceability & recalls

Mock recalls up and down supply chain.   Reduces fresh produce food safety compliance costs, makes audits easy. Optional fresh produce blockchain by CHAIN-TRACE.COM

Perform Potato quality control by scanning labels / RFID

Scan a pallet label, inventory label, or even PO/Invoice/BOL to perform a quality control.  Saves time and increases accuracy.  
Quality Control tests can be recalled back to a specific invoice, supplier, batch, etc...

FARMSOFTQC POTATO QUALITY control & POTATO QUALITY CONTROL with A.I. powered potato quality controls.
Farmsoft QC Quality control app makes fresh produce quality control rapid and accurate for all fresh produce packers:  cherry, berry, onion, pepper & capsicum, avocado, potato quality, broccoli, salad quality control, spinach, lettuce, cucumber, tomato quality, citrus, asparagus, garlic quality control app, carrot quality, bean, mango, leafy greens, fresh cut quality control, food service quality app, coleslaw quality, strawberry quality control app, grape quality, meat quality control app, flower quality.

Fresh produce quality control app for fresh produce blockchain traceabilityQuality control app for meat products, export/import.  

How to influence potato quality
There are three main criteria which define the quality of potato: tuber quality, skin finish and storage and cooking quality. A balanced crop nutrition program is important to help manage all of these criteria.  SMEs (Small Medium Entreprises) Rama is one of the potato chip producers in Batu city with the brand named "Rama Djaya". To produce competitive products, SMEs must continue to improve the quality of products by minimizing defects in the production. The defects in the quality of potato chips occur in color, crunchy and size. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the factors that can cause defects in potato chips. The research method used is Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Improve, Analyze, and Control). The results showed that for the defined stage, the main priority for quality improvement using the CTQ (Critical To Quality) was color change by 92%. In the measurement stage, the value of process capability produced the final yield of 51.69% which showed a lower percentage compared to the Indonesian National Standard of 69.2%. The analysis result of DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunity) value was 483,091.79, equal to 1.54 sigma so it needed to improve its strategy in production.

Tuber quality
Tuber quality, whether it is dry matter content, starch content, internal disorders or cooking ability is critical for the end user.

Nitrogen encourages leaf and tuber growth and maximises starch production, phosphate maintains leaf and tuber growth and influences starch quality and content, potassium maximizes water uptake and dry matter production and can help reduce the level of bruising, calcium minimizes internal rust spot and black spot, magnesium ensures a strong photosynthetic capacity and good growth, boron helps reduce internal rust spot and enzymatic blackening.

Potato Skin finish quality
Skin finish is becoming more important as consumers increasingly demand potatoes with clean, attractive skins, particularly when buying pre-packed or loose potatoes. Tubers with surface diseases are not only less attractive, they are likely to have a reduced storage life.

Correct balanced nutrition of the plants will reduce the incidence of tuber skin disorders and improve the skin finish. Calcium strengthens tuber skins providing better resistance to diseases, boron enhances the effect of calcium by improving uptake and so and can reduce levels of common scab and other tuber diseases, zinc can minimize powdery scab and sulphur may reduce both powdery and common scab infection.

Storage and cooking quality
Storage and cooking quality cannot be overlooked and once the crop has been harvested the job is not finished as in most countries potatoes have to be stored to provide continuity of supply throughout the year. Tubers that are less prone to bruising or discolouration will store significantly better and retain better cooking qualities.

Correct balanced nutrition of the crop prior to harvest will influence the storage and cooking quality of the potato tubers. Potassium, calcium, magnesium and boron all have positive effect on potato tuber storage and cooking quality by reducing tuber bruising, enzymatic blackening and discolouration.


1. Introduction
Because of climate change, the reduction of arable land, increasing population, and frequent occurrence of natural disasters, food security has become a crucial issue. To face this situation, increased food supply has become a priority in the world’s development agenda. In terms of nutritional value, adaptability to diverse environments and yield potential, the potato is a preferred crop, especially in developing countries. According to FAO statistics, potato production in developing countries has increased by 94.6 percent over the last 15 years (Table 1). Out of the four major food crops (rice, wheat, potato and maize), the potato has the best potential for yield increases.

Table 1. World potato production in 1991-2007 (million ton)

Potato yields are affected by several factors. Quality seed is a very important factor. The average yield increase from the use of good quality seed is 30 to 50 percent compared to farmers’ seeds. Two cases from China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea can illustrate the differences of yield. The results of investigations carried out in 2005 in Shandong, China are shown in Table 2. In the whole province, the use of good quality seed accounted for 24 percent. Medium quality seed accounted for 43.3 percent; and 32.7 percent of production was based on poor quality seed. The yield difference between good quality and poor quality was 28.4 percent.

Table 2. Comparison of yields from different quality categories of seed

Data from Academy of Agriculture Sciences, DPR Korea, 2007.

The second case, in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, shows the yield differences among various classes of seed (Table 3). The basic seed was microtubers. In Class 1 the tubers were harvested in normal size net-houses. In Class 2 the tubers were multiplied in the field.

Table 3. Yield comparison of different classes of seed

Data from Academy of Agriculture Sciences, DPR Korea, 2007.

4. Indicators of potato seed quality
Quality indicators of potato seed have two dimensions: the biological attributes (biological quality) and the appearance attributes (commercial quality). Biological quality is crucial for productivity, whereas commercial quality mainly affects seed price.

4.1 Biological quality
The biological quality includes two aspects: a) the level of disease infection and b) the physiological age of seed tubers. The former is quite complicated and important. It is well known that seed tubers planted continuously for several years will show degeneration. The degeneration is aroused by several kinds of viruses and virus-like organisms. Because of asexual propagation, viruses and viroids can be accumulated in tubers, and lead to degeneration of the potato.

The biological quality includes two aspects: a) the level of disease infection and b) the physiological age of seed tubers. The former is quite complicated and important. It is well known that seed tubers planted continuously for several years will show degeneration. The degeneration is aroused by several kinds of viruses and virus-like organisms. Because of asexual propagation, viruses and viroids can be accumulated in tubers, and lead to degeneration of the potato.

Major viruses affecting the potato are potato virus Y (PVY), potato virus X (PVX), potato virus M (PVM), potato virus A (PVA), potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) and potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV). Infection of any one alone or some of them jointly would retard plant growth and reduce tuber yield. Apart from viruses, fungal and bacterial pathogens borne by tubers lead to late blight, ring rot, black-leg and others, and are also limiting factors for seed quality.

4.2 Commercial quality
Commercial quality is defined by uniformity and size of tubers, as well as external appearance. For normal production, a reasonable size of seed tuber or tuber pieces should be about 40 to 50 grams. Big size seed will increase cost and seed that are too small can rot before emergence.

4.3 The way to guarantee biological quality
Good biological quality seed is free from any pathogens, including viruses, viroids, fungi and bacteria, that may lead to degeneration of seed. Seed multiplication started with clean stocks should be the key step. After that, appropriate multiplication technology should be applied according to classes of seed multiplied. Figure 1 shows the pattern of the general flow of seed multiplication in most seed production programmes.

Figure 1. General flow of potato seed production

Under given conditions, this flow could be modified. No matter what improvements are made, the quality of seed should be guaranteed. Of course, more generations of multiplication always increase the risk of degeneration, but seed costs can be reduced.

5. Seed supply systems
Seed supply systems are quite diverse. Many seed supply schemes have been adopted by local seed producers especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Some examples used in Asia and the Pacific region are shown below.

5.1 China
China is the world’s foremost potato producer in terms of harvest area and amount. In 2007, the harvested area was five million hectares and total production was 72 million tons. Nevertheless, national average yield was only 14.4 tons/ha, even lower than the world average (16.64 tons/ha). The adverse natural environment such as infertile soil in southwest mountain zones and shortage of water supply in the north-central zones are negative factors, but poor quality of seed is more significant. It is estimated that only 20 percent of the total cultivable area is planted with quality seed (Figures 2 and 3).

Figure 4. Multiplication system in northern region

Figure 5. Multiplication scheme in lowland zones

5.3 Mongolia
In 2004, the average potato yield was only 8.5 tons/ha in Mongolia. Results of interviews with 300 growers revealed that seed quality was the major cause of low yields. Most growers said that they did not know the origin of the seed they planted, as a seed supply system does not exist to which small-scale growers can have access.

From 2005, revitalization of Mongolia’s potato sector (funded by donors) started. Improvement of seed quality was a major component of the project. Based on natural and financial conditions, a decentralized seed system was adopted (Figure 6).

With the growth of the potato seed market, some large scale seed producers have emerged in recent years. The biggest one is the Shandong Xisen Group, with a capacity of 250 million mini-tubers per year. After multiplication in fields, 75 000 tons of certified seed can be produced yearly. Annual seed production of Inner Mongolia’s Hesheng Potato Industry is already stable at 40 000 tons of certified seed. There are also many small-scale seed producers in China. With the improvement of seed quality, potato yields in China will be significantly increased in the near future.

7. Conclusions
Potato yields are affected by several factors, but the basic factor is seed quality, especially its biological quality. Application of fertilizers and irrigation, as well as appropriate crop management, could be more effective when good quality seed is used.

Good returns from potato production are the driving force for using quality seed. As long as potato growers can achieve higher profits, they are willing to use quality seed. The key is that the profit from using quality seed must offsets its higher cost.

The native potato cultivars ‘Michuñe roja’ (pink fleshed); ‘Michuñe azul’ (purple fleshed); ‘Cabra’ (pink fleshed) and the commercial cultivar ‘Désirée’ (non-colored fleshed) were stored at 4, 12 and 20°C at 85% RH. At harvest and after 2 and 4 months, dry matter contents, total polyphenol contents (TPC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by FRAP, glucose, fructose and sucrose contents, were determined. Colored fleshed potatoes had between two and three times more TPC and TAC than the non-colored with no differences among them. The dry matter content was higher than 20% in all of the genetic materials except in ‘Michuñe azul’ with 19%. The values of TAC of colored fleshed potatoes were between 300 and 600 mg equivalent Trolox 100 g‑1 FW at harvest decreasing both at 2 and 4 months (50% less than harvest value). Potatoes stored at 12°C showed higher TAC compared to those stored at 4 and 20°C that did not show differences. The TPC measured on colored fleshed potatoes were not affected by the storage time and the values were between 300 and 400 mg gallic acid 100 g‑1 FW. The potatoes maintained at 20°C presented the highest contents. Glucose levels showed no difference between genetic materials and were not affected by storage temperatures and time (1-1.69 mg g‑1 FW). A similar behavior was observed in sucrose (0.94-1.2 mg g‑1 FW). Fructose levels were higher in potatoes maintained at 4°C (1.4-1.5 mg g‑1 FW) and lower in those kept at 20°C (0.7-0.8 mg g‑1 FW) without differences between genetic materials. The colored fleshed potatoes analyzed are rich in functional compounds and represent an interesting alternative for frying. To preserve the functional quality of the raw material it should be stored up to 2 months at a temperature of 12°C.

How to Improve Potato Quality With Calcium
Improving Potato Quality is directly influenced by Calcium. Good calcium levels in potato tubers can reduce multiple quality problems including Internal Rust Spot (IRS), internal browning and hollow heart. Calcium also plays a role in reducing susceptibility to bruising and post-harvest diseases. However despite this, farmers do not always get a good response to calcium fertilisers. Here we find out why, what can be done to improve it and how we can use this knowledge to improve potato quality.

Three Questions to help us understand how to improve potato quality…
Why are small parts of the tuber deficient when the area right next to them isn’t?
Why are these small areas of tissue deficient in Ca when there’s no whole plant deficiency?
How come applying large amounts of calcium doesn’t reverse the deficiency?
In order to answer these questions, it’s important to understand how calcium behaves in a plant. There are two factors to be considered in plant Ca availability –– transport and absorption.

Ca Transport
Unlike most other mineral nutrients, Ca isn’t phloem mobile and can only be transported through the xylem. Ca enters the plant with water and is transported upwards with transpiration, where it’s either absorbed and stored, or is precipitated from the leaves as excess.

Ca only moves upwards. This is why targeting and correct placement of applications is so important. Ca applied to leaves can’t correct problems in the roots.

Therefore, foliar sprays of Ca fertilisers will never put the nutrient into tuber – it’s physiological impossible for the plant to move Ca down.

Ca Absorption
Ca is absorbed into cells using polar-auxin transport –– as auxin moves out of the cell, Ca enters. Parts of a plant that are low in auxin can’t absorb the nutrient effectively, regardless of how much is available.

High auxin-producing areas include new shoots, new flowers, and new leaves. Low auxin-producing areas include fruits, roots and tubers.

This approach has seen good results on varieties sensitive to internal rust spot, but works primarily by creating a ‘shape’ that supplies more Ca to the tuber (growing the stolon roots) and reducing the strain caused by excessive vegetative growth on calcium transport.

Assuring Potato Tuber Quality during Storage: A Future Perspective
M. C. Alamar, Roberta Tosetti, Sandra Landahl, Antonio Bermejo and Leon A. Terry*
Plant Science Laboratory, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom
Potatoes represent an important staple food crop across the planet. Yet, to maintain tuber quality and extend availability, there is a necessity to store tubers for long periods often using industrial-scale facilities. In this context, preserving potato quality is pivotal for the seed, fresh and processing sectors. The industry has always innovated and invested in improved post-harvest storage. However, the pace of technological change has and will continue to increase. For instance, more stringent legislation and changing consumer attitudes have driven renewed interest in creating alternative or complementary post-harvest treatments to traditional chemically reliant sprout suppression and disease control. Herein, the current knowledge on biochemical factors governing dormancy, the use of chlorpropham (CIPC) as well as existing and chemical alternatives, and the effects of pre- and post-harvest factors to assure potato tuber quality is reviewed. Additionally, the role of genomics as a future approach to potato quality improvement is discussed. Critically, and through a more industry targeted research, a better mechanistic understanding of how the pre-harvest environment influences tuber quality and the factors which govern dormancy transition should lead to a paradigm shift in how sustainable storage can be achieved.

Potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum) have been cultivated for more than 6000 years. Currently, potato is the fourth most important crop produced crop worldwide with an annual production of ca. 382 MT. Europe and Asia are the biggest producers with a share of 40.7% each, followed by America and Africa (12.6 and 4.5%, respectively) (FAOSTAT, 20141). Potatoes provide an excellent source of nutrients and vitamins, but year-round availability depends on industrial-scale storage, especially in countries which rely on an annual crop. In the United Kingdom, approximately half of the total harvested tubers are stored for up to 11 months (Dale, 2014). Sub-optimal handling, poor tuber quality, and deficient post-harvest storage can lead to significant amounts of waste. The United Kingdom recorded overall losses of 17% (770,000 tons) in 2012, where premature sprouting and rotting during storage was the main cause of wastage (Terry et al., 2011; Pritchard et al., 2012). The United Kingdom outlined a strategy for a more sustained and secure food system in its Food Standard Agency (FSA) Strategic Plan 2015–2020, which aims, among several targets, to reduce waste (Food Standards Agency [FSA], 2015). This strategy is aligned with consumers’ requirements of improved nutritional value and sensory attributes, and with new regulation demanding the reduction of agrochemical usage (Lacy and Huffman, 2016).

Current challenges in the potato industry include the preservation of tuber quality throughout storage, restriction of isopropyl-N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (chlorpropham or CIPC) residues (mainly for ware potatoes destined for processing), control of sweetening processes, and ensuring tuber marketability (visual appearance is the main factor driving consumers purchase of fresh potatoes; Terry et al., 2013).

Factors Governing Dormancy
Dormancy break in potato tubers is a physiological phenomenon that is regulated by both exogenous (environmental factors) and endogenous signals (Sonnewald and Sonnewald, 2014). The relative concentration of several biochemical compounds such as plant growth regulators [viz. abscisic acid (ABA), auxins, cytokinins (CKs), gibberellins (GAs), ethylene, and strigolactones (SLs)] and other compounds (viz. carbohydrates and organic acids) are believed to orchestrate the onset and further development of dormancy break (Sonnewald, 2001; Viola et al., 2007; Pasare et al., 2013).

Endogenous ethylene is required at the earliest stage of dormancy initiation (endodormancy induction) (Suttle, 1998); however, its role during dormancy and sprouting is still unclear. Exogenous ethylene (10 μL L-1) has been reported to break endodormancy following short-term treatments (Foukaraki et al., 2014), but also to inhibit sprout growth and promote ecodormancy when supplied continuously – either starting immediately after harvest or at first indication of sprouting (Foukaraki et al., 2016a). However, work carried out on cv. Russet Burbank minitubers showed that ethylene was not involved in hormone-induced dormancy break (Suttle, 2009). These findings support the suggestion that the effect of ethylene depends on the physiological state of potato tubers.